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Showing posts with label featured. Show all posts

Pas'ungko Festival

Pas'ungko Festival

 Pas'ungko Festival

Pas'ungko Festival highlights Subanen folklore and literature

Subanen cultural heritage is alive and thriving in the entire Subanen territory of Subanen People's Kingdom (SPK) one which it is the Pas'ungko S'g Mis Occ Festival, a highlight of the province's 89th anniversary celebration, and a thanksgiving celebration for the abundance of blessings among the Subanen people.

The Pas'ungko street dance competition promotes cultural sensitivity through its carefully crafted presentations which were reported to be studied exhaustively before being rendered into artful performances.

Each of the 11 competing contingents showed accurate representation of the Subanen tribe, from their traditional attires that tell of the tribe's rich history and culture, to their symbolic rituals and vibrant folk literature.

Echoing the advocacy of preserving the identity and culture of indigenous people, and organizing events for the public so that they may witness and be reminded of their ancestors' legacy.

"This celebration is not only an invitation for now, we should work harder so that our future generation may enjoy what we have this moment. Let this be our gift to them in the future."

His Majesty Rajah Gendao is thankful to the Philippine' Department of Tourism (DOT) for promoting the awareness about the Subanen Culture in Subanen People's Kingdom (SPK) to the entire Philippines and in the world. His majesty is also thankful to the Misamis Occidental Government, the organizers, the participants and most of all the People who visited and enjoyed the festival which is celebrated every month of November.

Zamboanga City, Subanen Territory, Mindanao Philippines

Semboangan the now Zamboanga Pink beaches

Zamboanga Pink Beaches

Zamboanga City was the Subanen Tribe business district for trade and barter  before the arrival of the Spaniards. It was named as Semboangan and in the modern times it become established tourist destination in Southern  Philippines and Western Mindanao. 

It is likewise a well-known Philippine destination for cruise ships – especially in the ASEAN, BIMP-EAGA, and South China Sea circuits. Zamboanga City also acts as the gateway and service hub for the other Western Mindanao regional tourism destinations like Pagadian City, Dipolog City, and Dapitan City.

Where to Go in Zamboanga?

Santa Cruz Island 

These islands are known for its pinkish sand beach because of the washed out corals from the sea bottom. On the island is a fishing village, lagoon and an old Moslem burial ground. These are an extensive and varied underwater life of coral heads and rocks, which support a large variety of tropical fish. The place is ideal for swimming, snorkeling, skin, and scuba diving, beachcombing and sunbathing. Sta. Cruz Island can be reached in 15 minutes by motorboats from either Lantaka Hotel or the Zamboanga Golf and Sports Complex.

The islands are located about 4 kilometers from the Poblacion Zones coastline. The islands hold great potential and are ideal for offshore, island - base resort developments. At, present, the islands are being utilized for tourism purposes, but have not reached their full potentials. Existing development plants and programs are very informal.

Bolong beach and Eleven Islands

This destination is about 30 kilometers from downtown Zamboanga City along the eastern coastal areas of the city. The 11 islands, starting with Visa island, the southernmost part of the cluster, is located off Brgy. Bolong while the northernmost part, Lampinigan Island, is 1.5 km. off the shores of Brgy Dita. These islands are scattered over a seven by six kilometer area, spanning four seaside Barangays, namely, Bolong, Panubigan, Lubigan, and Dita, going on a south-north direction. The area has been found to possess varied natural characteristics such as rock formation and off-white beaches fit for various recreational activities.

The island on the eastern side of the 11 island cluster, namely, Visa, Baong, Buguias, and Sirumon islands are gifted with white sand beaches on some portions of the islands edges, which can be ideal for swimming and sunbathing. Around these islands are deep

waters ranging from 16 to 24 fathoms that can be an ideal location for snorkeling , skin and scuba diving. These islands are also highly vegetated, attesting to the fertility of the soil. Some of the islets, particularly those adjacent to Visa and Baong Islands, can possibly be transformed into flower islets where various flower species of Zamboanga City can be cultivated and grown. Since they are very near the larger islands, they can be connected by hanging bridges.

The western side of the 11-island cluster, particularly Cabugan, Limbang, Bobo, and Simoandang, are generally rocks formations but still highly vegetated., except for Cabugan. Cabugan Island, with its relatively high rock information, can be developed for rock climbing rappelling activities with a hiking trail on the island. Some of its ledges can be developed as high as diving take-off points.

Bog Lake

The lake consist of about 60 to 70 has. of wetlands and is bounded on the east by a property owned by the Archdiocese of Zamboanga City where tall acacia trees are grown. This area is adjacent to a highly populated residential area linked to the Southern Command Compound. Another residential area, the Lakeview Subdivision, bounds the take on its west side.

The lake, which is about 4 km. from the city center, is adjacent to the northern half of the Zamboanga Golf and Country Club. Early settlers in Zamboanga remember it as a bird sanctuary during the cold season of neighboring countries. It could be considered as one of the largest bodies of water at the heart of a fast urbanizing area of the City, Calarian.

The Calarian State Freshwater Fisheries Sanctuary and Hatchery is also located at the heart of the lake. Clumps of coconut trees are clustered in the northern part of the lake, while towering old acacia trees can be found in the eastern part. Various types of freshwater fish and crocodiles are found in the lake. The perimeter of the lake area is highly vegetated, though most of them are wild grass and shrubberies.

The western and eastern sides of the lake are being overrun by residential development while the southern side bordering the Zamboanga Golf Course and Country Club is already being encroached by a considerable number of squatters.

Cruise ship Destination Network 

This destination is located in the existing Port Area of the Poblacion Zones. The area holds potential for assorted allied developments revolving on the presence of cruise ship berthing facilities and other related port activities.

Pasonaca Park Complex and Environs 

Located about 7.5 kilometers from downtown Zamboanga City, Pasonanca today is known all over the Philippines as a tourist attraction. It has become a popular site for youth citizenship training and for boys and Girl Scout jamborees. To those who come from the north, perhaps due to its location at about 500 feet above sea level and surroundings of verdant hills and mountains. In a 1959 contest for parks, plazas and gardens nationwide., Pasonanca Park won the First Prize as the Number One Garden of the Philippines. Construction of this Park was began in 1912 by Gen. John J. Pershing, the military Governor for Mindanao.

Pasonanca Park is one of the centerpiece destinations of the city. Aside from the park proper, Pasonanca has a spectrum of other destinations within the park and its environs. Some of these are: Tree House, Pulung Bato – Chief Sarangan House; la Paz Resort, Climaco Freedom park; Bog Lake; Abong-Abong “Greenhouse” and View Decks; Zamboanga Convention and Multi-Purpose Center; and the Brgy. Sta. Maria Flower Showcase.

Tigbalabag Heights 

Located in Bgy. Tigbalabag about 45 kilometers from downtown Zamboanga, the heights are suitable for upland, foothills and watershed-compatible developments. The area has commanding views and panoramic vistas of the city and the Moro Gulf.

Tutungatung Village 

Tuungatung is another Muslim cultural showcase. It is located in Barangay Tulungatung, along the western areas of the city.

Yakan Weaving Village 

The Yakans, the original inhabitants of Basilan Province, are considered one of the finest weavers of the Philippines. The Yakan weave is so fine that it takes a week or so to finish a meter of cloth. The Yakan clothe commands a high price in well-known trade centers in the Philippines because of its design and craftsmanship. It is located in Barangay Upper Calarian.

Zamboanga Convention and Multipurpose Center 

The golf course was originally known as the Zamboanga Golf and Country Club when Gen. John J. Pershing founded it in June 1910. This is one of the oldest golf courses in the country with Gen. Pershing the club’s finest president.

The course has 18 holes spread over 64 hectares and has a fine layout with winding fairways, dogleg situations and good greens planted to Tifton 228. Its bunkers have the unique pink sand from Sta. Cruz Island. Although the course’s first nine is somewhat flat in terrain, its second nine is fairly rolling and skirts the Basilan Strait for a magnificent ocean view. An interesting round is always in store for the average golfer or the proficient campaigner, as long tree mounds assure flexibility. This course has elevated greens, which can be tricky for, their small size and rolling make-up.

The Zamboanga Golf and Sports Complex is an established leisure and recreational facility of the City. It is located in barangay Upper Calarian. It is one of the only two golf courses in the City.

Chemistry and Science Explanation of Luthang Gapuyan or Fire Piston


Fire piston was invented in "Dipag" now Dipolog City in the modern Zamboanga del Norte, island of Mindanao, the Philippines over 1,500 years ago by a Subanen tribe teenager named “Anlangan”.

Scientific Explanation of Fire Piston


Problem 2: What is the number that goes into C3?

Problem 3: What is the weight of air in the 16 liter tank (N2)?

Problem 4: What is the formula that goes into N2?

Problem 5: If you wanted to figure the total weight of the tank at 3500 psi, what cell do you change?

Problem 6: If the temperature was 92°F instead of 77°F, what would the new formula in I3 become?

Problem 7: What cells need to be updated to do that?

Problem 8: What is the final pressure in mm of mercury (mm of Hg)?

Problem 9: What is the formula that goes in L2?

Problem 10: What would be the final pressure if the end volume was 0.7mL?

Problem 11: What is the pressure now after some of the cotton burns (L2)?

Problem 12: What is the pressure of L2 in atmospheres?

The volume of the air in the fire piston cylinder starts at 10.0 mL and then is squeezed to 1.0 mL. The temperature started as 25°C (room temp) and ended up at 600.°C. The pressure before being squeezed was 740mm of mercury (Note 760mm Hg is 1 atmosphere). We want the final pressure. If temperature had remained the same, this would be easy. The volume went down to 1/10 its original size, which would make the pressure be 10 times larger (740mm x 10=7,400mm mercury). However, the temperature changed, so it's more complicated. We can start with PV=nRT; however, there are two conditions. One at the beginning and one at the end. So we need two PV=nRT formulas. Let P1V1=n1RT1 be the values before it was compressed. Then P2V2=n2RT2 would be the values after compression and becoming hot. Since R is constant, it is the same in both equations. We can exploit that fact. Let's solve both equations for R. In the first R=P1V1/n1T1, and the second is R=P2V2/n2T2. Since both are equal to R, they are equal to each other. So, P1V1/n1T1=P2V2/n2T2. Since the moles of the gas didn't change, n1=n2, we can multiply both sides by n1, which would cancel out both n1 and n2. Our equation now reads:


We know all of these values except for P2 (final pressure). So lets solve for P2 by dividing both sides by V2 and multiplying both sides by T2. We now get

P1V1T2/(T1V2)=P2, which can also be written as P1x V1x T2 /T1 /V2=P2. This looks like a good job for a spreadsheet. Since there's no R in the formula, we don't need pressure measured in atmospheres or volume in liters, but we do have to use Kelvin. So 273 gets added to the Celsius degrees.

The pressure in the fire piston will go up at the point the tender attached to the bottom of the pistion catches fire. (I used a piece from a cotton ball in my fire piston). When the cotton burns, it will consume the oxygen but will produce carbon dioxide and water vapor and higher temperatures. So the pressure should go up due to more gases and higher temperature.

Cotton is cellulose, which has the formula of

(C6H12O5)n. The "n" means it is a long chain of these glucose molecules. But we can treat it like it was burning C6H12O5. Here's the balanced equation.

2C6H12O5+13O2 --> 12CO2 + 12H2O

We can't ignore the nitrogen gas, which is 5 times the number of oxygen molecules (5 x 13=65). So we can add that to the reaction.

2C6H12O5 +13O2 + 65N2--> 12CO2 + 12H2O + 65N2

Looking at this we see that we start with 78 moles (12+65) of gases and end with 84 moles (12+12+65) of gases. Also, the burning will increase the temperature. The yellow flame indicates a temperature around 3,000 Kelvin.

This problem is similar to the last one but the intitial conditions are the final conditions in the above problem.

That was P2V2=n2RT2

After the flame heats up the air and creates the extra gases, the condition is different. Let's use P3V3=n3RT3 for the new final condition.

Like before we can solve for R on both and set them equal to each other. This looks like the last time we did it:


This time the moles are changing, but the volume is the same. So we need to keep the moles (n2 and n3) but we can drop the volumes. That simplifies it to:


Solving for the final pressure (P3) by multiplying both sides by n3 and T3 gives us:

P2n3T3/n2T2 = P3

Even though we don't know the exact number of moles, we do know the ratio of moles, which works fine when you have one divided by the other. So the 78 moles for n2 and the 85 moles for n3 that we got from the balanced equation works fine.

We can check the units to see if they cancel and we can check the logic. In the above spreadsheet we see that we have 85 moles over 78 moles. So that's 85/78, which will make the pressure larger as expected. We see the temperature ratio of 3000 over 873 or 3000/873, which will also make the pressure larger. So these fractions are doing what we expect should happen to the pressure which is to become larger when there's more moles and higher temperatures. Read more at Chemistry land

The First Discovery of "Luthang Gapuyan" ( Fire Piston ) and its history over 1500 years ago

Fire Piston luthang gapuyan

Anlangan 17 years old boy accidentally invented the first "Fire Piston" locally named “Luthang Gapuyan” over 1500 years ago

The history of the “luthang gapuyan” or fire piston was not known by many but used by thousands. 

The discovery of luthang gapuyan or fire piston and significant invention in the world history was purely accidental.

Fire piston was accidentally discovered and invented in Semboangan Island in '"Dipag" to be particular  now Dipolog City in the modern Zamboanga del Norte, island of Mindanao, the Philippines over 1,500 years ago by a Subanen tribe teenager named “Anlangan” according to the generation to generation story.

Anlangan a 17 year old Subanen boy was described as curious, funny and playful boy who was fun of making a bamboo toy magazine and accidentally discovered a fire created from his invention when making a hardwood as replacement of a bamboo materials. According to a tale passed from generations to generation, it was one afternoon when Anlangan was given tasked by his parents to burn the portion of the mountain for their new kaingin (slashed and burn) in preparation of the coming Panuig or planting season. Anlangan was on his way when the rain suddenly fall so he returned home and decided to just stay under their house playing his “luthang” or bamboo magazine with his younger brother while waiting for the rain to stop. His bamboo magazine's barrel  exploded was broken so he became curious of making another 1 out of the hard wood to prevent from breaking. 

He was using a hard wood in making a barrel for his planned wooden toy magazine and bored it to form a barrel. Before the hole reached to the other end, he was using another hard wooden stick in polishing the inner part of the hole. While polishing the inner hole using the other hardwood, he just realized after pushing in then pushing out, a smoke came out and formed a fire. 

So instead of making luthang, out of the hard wood he then carved the wood into smaller toy and tied it with a rope made of abaca then wore it and informed his father about his invention then his family was the first creation in the world who used the luthang gapuyan or fire piston for their kaingin or slash and burn farming.

Luthang gapuyan then become a common toy for the subanen tribes and used as product for trading with the visiting traders from Cebu, Sulu and the invention spread all over the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia to Europe.

Fire piston luthang gapuyan

A southeast Asian native old woman is using Luthang Gapuyan (Fire piston)